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Gastroenterology Conference 2020

Gene Expression in Liver

There is a higher genetic diversity in tumour cells which holds at the gene expression level. Through knowing the gene expression level we can regulate the hepatocellular carcinoma during hepatitis viral infection. Disease progression in HBV and HCV induced can influence by both environmental factors and genetic risk factors. Nucleic acid mediated gene therapy has been undergoing clinical trials which may result towards prevention of chronic liver diseases by regulating mechanism of different proteins expression using mRNA overexpression and mRNA functional silencing.

  • Genetics and epigenetics of liver cancer
  • Human liver proteome project

Advances in Gastroenterology

The latest innovations in Gastroenterology where the colorectal cancer screening, capsule endoscopy, cures for hepatitis virus and new biological therapies are some of the recent advances in the field. Neurogastroenterology targets mainly on the functions, malfunctions & malformations of the sympathetic, parasympathetic & enteric divisions of the digestive tract.

  • Latest advances in gastrointestinal disorder treatments
  • Various technics used to treat GIT diseases

Clinical research in gastroenterology

The goals of the division of Gastroenterology research programs are to advance knowledge in the areas of gastroenterology and hepatology through innovative basic science, translational, and clinical research and to foster the spirit of scientific inquiry among faculty, fellows, residents, and students. Gastroenterology Division researchers are actively involved in numerous projects in the study of the biology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal and liver diseases.

 

  • Colon cancer screening.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis 
  • hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cancer, and other liver disease
  • Role of adiposity in esophageal and colorectal cancers
  • Progression of chronic liver disease and serum bile acids
  • HIV and mucosal immunology

Gastrointestinal Radiology

An upper gastrointestinal series, also called an upper gastrointestinal study or contrast radiography of the upper gastrointestinal tract, is a series of radiographs used to examine the gastrointestinal tract for abnormalities. Radiology can be done in many ways like x-ray, computed tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomography now allows comprehensive assessment of abdominal and pelvic inflammatory and infectious processes, obstruction, tumour detection and staging, and display of vasculature and blunt trauma effects.

  • Double Bubble Radiology
  • Fetal Ultrasound
  • Barium enema
  • CT colonography (virtual colonoscopy)
  • Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis
  • Duodenal Atresia

Gastrointestinal Pathology

Gastrointestinal Pathology is sub discipline of surgical Pathology. It deals with the analysis and exposure of growth and non-neoplastic diseases of the epithelial duct and accent organs, like the exocrine gland and liver.
Though pathology diagnosing could be a important determinant of future cancer risk and screening interval, several of those diagnoses don't lead to important morbidity or mortality for patients; therefore, errors could also be "masked" by the restricted impact to the patient within the gift context.

  • Diagnostic Histopathology

  • Endoscopic Biopsies

  • Pancreatic Biliary Systems

  • Gastrointestinal Physiology

  • Histomorphology

  • Gastrointestinal Tissue

  • Hematemesis

  • Hematochezia

Neurogastroenterology

It works on "brain of the gut," which is a part of the nervous system and controls motility, endocrine secretions, and microcirculation of the gastrointestinal system. It mainly focuses on common Functional Gastrointestinal disorders like Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Heartburn, Abdominal Pain, Peptic Ulcer and Gallstone Pancreatitis which manages the gastrointestinal motility and Functional GIT disorders. Psychiatric relations to functional GIT disorders are included and treated though Neurogastroenterologic methods especially discomfort in abdomen and pain in the digestive tract.

Therapeutics & Diagnostic Gastroenterology

Middle part of the GIT is examined through various methods which includes mainly three portions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). Various different techniques are used in treating various Gastrointestinal disorders.

  • Capsule Endoscopy
  • Colonoscopy
  • Gastroscopy
  • Endoscope
  • Enteroscopy
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)
  • Gastroscopy.

Biomarkers in Gastroenterology

Gastrointestinal cancers account for approximately 25% of all cancer deaths in the Western world. There is a basic preventive approach that can utilize biomarkers in order to stratify patients into appropriate screening or surveillance programs. Biomarkers are clinical variables associated with clinical outcomes. In cancer biology, the best biomarkers are germ line adenomatous polyposis coli mutations, which are highly predictive of colon cancer. In other areas, such as Barrett’s oesophagus, despite early excellent success in identifying the importance of p16, p53, and aneuploidy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma pathogenesis, useful biomarkers are still not widely used in clinical practice. New molecular biomarkers are identified in the future like epigenetic methylation patterns and genetic polymorphisms. In the meantime, clinicians must rely on robust, inexpensive methods such as standard histopathology. Dysplasia is still the mainstay of cancer prediction in most inflammatory disorders of the GI tract and is an independent marker of cancer risk.

 

Genetics and Molecular Biology in Gastroenterology

Genetics and Genomics will strongly influence the GIT. Molecular biology has become the integral part of the basic clinical Gastroenterology. A broad spectrum of infectious, inheritable and malignant epithelial duct diseases will currently be studied by molecular ways, together with enzyme chain reaction, crossbreeding and polymer sequence analyses. From common disorders like large intestine cancer, inflammation and multiple polyps; to rare conditions like hereditary injury telangiectasia, information of genomic developments is more and more extremely helpful to doctors and their patients.

 

Laparoscopy

It is a medical instrument used in surgical procedure to view in to abdominal part of the body. It determines the condition like Endometriosis and helpful in treating Ovarian cyst removal, tubal ligation, Hysterectomy. Laparoscopic surgery is also called as ‘Minimally Invasive Surgery’. Laparoscopic Surgery reduces the risk of Pain, Forms lesser scars, Contamination of the Internal parts and also Hospital stay of the patient also decreases are the main advantages of the Laparoscopic technique.

 

Endoscopy

Endoscope is a medical device which is a flexible tube with a light and camera attached to it, where Doctor used to examine a person’s gastrointestinal tract by Non-Surgical Procedure. Endoscopy is done to examine the cause of abnormal symptoms in the body, removal of small tissue samples for laboratory testing which is known as Endoscopic Biopsy. Endoscopy is of different types based on the area of the body they Investigate.

  • Arthroscopy- Joints
  • Bronchoscopy-Lungs
  • Colonoscopy- Colon
  • Enteroscopy- Small Intestine
  • Laparoscopy- Abdomen.

 

Stem Call treatment

Stem cells therapies represent a new field of biomedical science which could provide in the future the cure for diseases until now incurable. Many gastrointestinal diseases are a major reason for the increased mortality rate of children and adults every year.  However, intestinal transplantation is still accompanied by many challenges, including immune rejection and donor availability, which may limit the transplant's success. The development of more safe and promising alternative treatments for intestinal diseases is still ongoing. Stem cell-based therapy (SCT) and tissue engineering (TE) appear to be the next promising choices for the regeneration of the damaged intestine. However, suitable stem cell source is required for the SCT and TE process. Thus, in this review we discuss how intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are a promising cell source for small intestine diseases.

Here, we report on the issues discussed, including liver and intestinal diseases that may benefit from stem cell therapy, the biology of hepatic and intestinal tissue repair, and stem cell usage in clinical trials.

 

Liver Cancer

It is uncommon but serious type of cancer; primary liver cancer that begins in the liver whereas secondary liver cancer develops another part of the body and spread to the liver. Symptoms of live cancer are aften vague and don’t appear until the cancer is in advanced stage.

Symptoms-

Unintentional weight loss, loss of appetite, feeling sick & vomiting, Pain & swelling in the abdomen, itchy skin and feeling very tired & weak.  

Treatment for liver cancer depends on the stage the condition is at. If diagnosed early, it may be possible to remove the cancer completely.

Treatment options in the early stages of liver cancer include:

  • surgical resection – surgery to remove a section of liver
  • liver transplant – where the liver is replaced with a donor's liver
  • microwave or radiofrequency ablation – where microwaves or radio waves are used to destroy the cancerous cells

 

GI disorders in Pregnancy

Gastrointestinal disorders are most commonly seen during Pregnancy, due to increased levels of Progesterone. Symptoms like Vomiting, Nausea, Diarrhea, Heartburn and Gastro oesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Gastrointestinal bleeding and perforation are the rare complications during pregnancy.

 

Hepatology

It deals with the prevention, diagnosis and management of diseases which mainly affect the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas. Hepatitis affects millions of people globally and is associated with many severe problems and poor outcomes including liver transplant and liver cancer. The Hepatitis B & C are major reason for causing liver cancer in certain areas, while alcohol abuse has been linked to conditions such as cirrhosis and other serious complications.

  • Jaundice
  • Liver transplantation
  • Drug metabolism
  • Damage to the pancreas or biliary tract caused by infection, cancer, alcohol, bleeding or obstruction.
  • Diseases of the liver related to excess alcohol consumption, including fatty liver disease, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer.

 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome is a condition in which the colon muscle contracts more often than in people without IBS, certain foods, medicines and emotional stress are some factors that can trigger IBS.

Symptoms-

Abdominal pain and cramps, excess gas, bloating, change in bowel habits such as harder, looser or abnormal, alternating constipation and diarrhoea.

Treatments-

Avoiding Caffeine, Increasing fibre in the diet, Minimizing stress or learning different ways to cope with stress and sometimes even due to medicine.

 

Gastrointestinal disorders

In this type of disorder gastrointestinal tract looks normal but doesn’t work properly. The factors which affect the GI tract and its motility are Eating a diet low in fibre, not enough exercise, other changes in routine, stress, taking antacid medicine containing calcium/aluminium and pregnancy.

 

Peptic Ulcers

This is the most common cause of Upper GI bleeding. Peptic ulcers are sores that develop on the stomach and upper portion of the small intestine. Stomach acid, either bacteria or use of anti-inflammatory drugs damages the lining which leads to formation of sores.

 

Gastrointestinal Bleeding

It is a digestive track disorder where blood often appears in stool & vomiting but not always visible.

Signs and symptoms depend on the location of the bleed, which can be anywhere on the GI tract, from where it start the mouth to the anus and the rate of bleeding

Preventions method- Limiting use of NSAID’s, limit use of alcohols, quitting smoking and if in case of GERD, follow your doctor’s instructions for treating it.

Market Analysis

The global gastrointestinal therapeutics market is expected to reach 13.8 billion USD by 2020. This growth in market is attributed to numerous factors including development of novel therapies using innovative technologies, increasing consumption of biologics, improved diagnostic tools etc.

Increase in the Gastric surgeries across the globe will also directly show impact on the increasing gastroparesis drug market. Due to primary growth factor, for global gastroparesis drug market will increase 940 million USD between 2016-2021 exceeding 7.1 billion USD in market size by the end of the forecast period.

According to the report, the North America region is expected to hold the largest share in the global gastrointestinal diseases market. This dominance of North America is attributed to the rising approval of the novel drugs and the growth in the instances of various gastrointestinal diseases.

To Collaborate Scientific Professionals around the World

Conference Date February 12-13, 2020

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International Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System International Journal of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases & Disorders International Journal of Hepatology and Pancreatic Science

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